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Additional Physical Format: Online version: Weiss, Roberto. In the wake of the assassination attempt, Pope Sixtus IV has allied himself even more heavily with the House of Borgia. Sixtus continued the policy of his predecessor Paul II with regard to France, and denounced Louis XI for insisting on the royal consent being given before papal decrees could be published in his kingdom. Pope Sixtus IV was born as Francesco della Rovere on July 21, 1414, in Celle Ligure, in the Liguria region of Italy. The Hospital of Santo Spirito and Pope Sixtus IV (Outstanding Dissertations in the Fine Arts) Concurrently, the ideal of the crusade against the Turks was dying. Roma : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1961 (OCoLC)645314370 Vol. He made two of his nephews Cardinals right away and then distanced himself from the vow of poverty he […] After filling the post of procurator of his order in Rome and Provincial of Liguria, he was in 1467 created Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli by Paul II. But he wasn't as comitted to reform as perhaps he should have been. . He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Thomas M. Barrett. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14032b.htm. His father’s name was Leonardo della Rovere, and his mother was called Luchina Monleoni. Later he studied philosophy and theology with great success at the University of Pavia, and lectured at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, and Florence, having amongst other eminent disciples the famous Cardinal Bessarion. His accomplishments as pope included building the He granted many privileges to the mendicant orders, particularly to his own Franciscans. Neither a crusader nor curial politician, Sixtus aimed at the aggrandizement of his family and of the Papal States, subordinating his duties as the church’s spiritual head in a manner characteristic of his era. The scarlet figure of Pope Sixtus IV dominates the central section of Hugo’s painting. APA citation. Julius II (1503-13) certainly loved the Church, and was the pope responsible for commissioning the new St. Peter's. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. He commissioned such great artists as Sandro Botticelli and Antonio del Pollaiuolo and pensioned such eminent men of learning as Bartolomeo Platina. Sixtus IV (FRANCESCO DELLA ROVERE), POPE, b. near Abisola, July 21, 1414; d. August 12, 1484. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14032b.htm. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sixtus-IV, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Sixtus IV. These outstanding achievements, however, were accomplished with heavy taxation and simony. Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. Nevertheless, there is a praiseworthy side to his pontificate. Servant of the Servants of God. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. Pope Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV came into the Holy position of the Pope in 1414. Gregory XIII died on 10 April 1585, and after a conclave of four days Peretti was elected pope by "adoration" on 24 April, 1585. July 1, 1912. April 14, 1482 A.D. Supernal, celestial fatherland, the City of Jerusalem, whose own participation is in itself, so rejoices in the salvation of all the elect, that the more outstanding are the merits of these, the more copious does it also receive the joys of the rewards. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. His first thought was the prosecution of the war against the Turks, and legates were appointed for France, Spain, Germany, Hungary, and Poland, with the hope of enkindling enthusiasm in these countries. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. Pope Sixtus V. AKA Felice Peretti. MLA citation. The pope is the head of the Catholic Church. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and … Butler, Richard Urban. Dedicated to the Memory of Pope Sixtus IV. Even Pope Leo X (1513-21) was not a corrupt man, though his lifestyle was self-indulgent. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Apart from meddling in feuds between the great Roman families, Sixtus IV committed himself rather scandalously to Venice’s aggression against the duchy of Ferrara, which he incited the Venetians to attack (1482); their combined assault was opposed by Milan, Florence, and Naples. Pope Sixtus IV was the 212th Pope, whose 13 years long papacy was embroiled in controversies and internal wars. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. Sixtus IV’s relations were strained with France, whose king Louis XI firmly upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which had established the liberties of the French Church. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Updates? He established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital and repaired and built numerous Roman churches (including Sta. He took the name Sixtus V in memory of Sixtus IV… During his pontificate Rome was transformed from a medieval to a Renaissance city. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Sixtus IV (21 Jul 1414–12 Aug 1484), Find a Grave Memorial no. In 1478 took place the famous conspiracy of the Pazzi, planned by the pope's nephew — Cardinal Rafael Riario — to overthrow the Medici and bring Florence under the Riarii. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. (1912). His parents were poor, and while still a child he was destined for the Franciscan order. He now turned his attention almost exclusively to Italian politics, and fell more and more under his dominating passion of nepotism, heaping riches and favours on his unworthy relations. Butler, R.U. Ercole d'Este, attacked by Venice, found allies in almost every Italian state, and Ludovico Sforza, upon whom the pope relied for support, did nothing to help him. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. In 1472, under Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, he sent a fleet that participated in the landing at the important Muslim stronghold of Smyrna, but a new expedition in 1473 failed. "Pope Sixtus IV." Like Julius III with Innocenzo, Sixtus made his lover Petro Riario – who was also his nephew – … The sixth pope was named the “Sixth” or, in Latin, “Sixtus.” He reigned from 115–125 A.D. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484. Sixtus IV (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. In his private life Sixtus IV was blameless. Pope Sixtus I (42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), also spelled Xystus, a Roman of Greek descent, was the bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death. Omissions? He took measures to suppress abuses in the Inquisition, vigorously opposed the Waldenses, and annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. The next Sixtus was today’s martyr, who reigned from one August to the next in 257–258. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484. The conclave which assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope, and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus IV. He also made an effort like his predecessor for the reunion of the Russian Church with Rome, but his negotiations were without result. On January 29, 1482, Pope Sixtus IV issued a brief to the monarchs of Spain expressing his disappointment with the way the Inquisition was being administered in Castile, and suggesting that he intended to restore to his own hands powers he had earlier granted to Ferdinand and Isabella. Corrections? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sixtus IV soon abandoned universal interests, concentrating on Italian politics and revealing his confirmed nepotism. Born in 1414 near Savona, Francesco della Rovere was a Franciscan who taught at several universities and wrote treatises on the issues that divided his order from the Dominicans, until he was elected pope in 1471. Whatever leisure he now had was devoted to theology, and in 1470 he published a treatise on the Precious blood and a work on the Immaculate Conception, in which latter he endeavoured to prove that Aquinas and Scotus, though differing in words, were really of one mind upon the question. He finally absolved Lorenzo and removed the interdict. His first thought was the prosecution of the war against the Turks, and legates were appointed for France, Spain, Germany, Hungary, and Poland, with … He was a patron of arts and letters, building the famous Sistine Chapel, the Sistine Bridge across the Tiber, and becoming the second founder of the Vatican Library. In 1480 Lorenzo boldly made peace with Ferdinand, despite Sixtus, who maintained war between the papacy and Florence. From the moment he took the position he started using his position to grant favors upon those loyal to him. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Born near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; died 12 Aug., 1484. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. Pope Sixtus IV’s alliance with the House of Borgia solidifies the strong relationship between the Catholic Church and the family, which produced Pope Callixtus III (formerly Alfonso de Borgia) in 1455. Pazzi conspiracy, (April 26, 1478), unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence; the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family.The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.. On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IV’s nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. Pope Sixtus IV : biography 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484 The English theologian John Bale attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the Cardinal of Santa Lucia.Giovanni Lydus, Analecta in librum Nicolai de Clemangiis, De … He brought down water from the Quirinal to the Fountain of Trevi, and began a transformation of the city which death alone hindered him from completing. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. The conclave which assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope, and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus IV. Sixtus IV, given name Francesco della Rovere, Roman Catholic Pope from the 9th of August 1471 to the 12th of August 1484, was born of a poor family near Savona in 1414. Pope Sixtus II (257–258) Pope Sixtus III (432–440) Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484) Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590) Others. Pope Sixtus IV. Transcription. As a perpetual memorial. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Imprimatur. The attitude of Sixtus towards the conspiracy of the Pazzi, his wars and treachery, his promotion to the highest offices in the Church of such men as Pietro and Girolamo are blots upon his career. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. SIXTUS IV° (b.Francesco della Rovere; 1414–1484), pope from 1471 to 1484.In Italy the reign of Sixtus IV marks a high point of tolerance. Maria del Popolo and Sta. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. Dedicated to the Memory of Pope Sixtus IV. The gross accusations brought against him by his enemy Infessura have no foundation; his worst vice was nepotism, and his greatest misfortune was that he was destined to be placed at the head of the States of the Church at a time when Italy was emerging from the era of the republics, and territorial princes like the pope were forced to do battle with the great despots. Under him Rome once more became habitable, and he did much to improve the sanitary conditions of the city. The Catholic Encyclopedia. The crusade, however, achieved little beyond the bringing back to Rome of twenty-five Turkish prisoners, who were paraded in triumph through the streets of the city. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. His accomplishments as Pope included the establishment of the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpiece of the city's new artistic age, the Vatican Archives. The remnant or … This is not without reason and is explained later. The pope was cognizant of the plot, though probably not of the intention to assassinate, and even had Florence under interdict because it rose in fury against the conspirators and brutal murderers of Giuliano de' Medici. 76653071, citing Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City ; Maintained by Find A Grave . Contact information. The allied princes forced Sixtus to make peace, and the chagrin which this caused him is said to have hastened his death. The Hospital of Santo Spirito and Pope Sixtus IV (Outstanding Dissertations in the Fine Arts) [Eunice D. Howe] on Amazon.com. For refusing to desist from the hostilities that he had instigated and for appearing to be a dangerous rival to the Papal States, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Medals of Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484). Sixtus II (or Sixth, the Second) is listed in the Roman Canon’s select roll call of sainted popes: “Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus… He now entered upon a two years' war with Florence, and encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for his nephew Girolamo Riario. Ecclesiastical approbation. At whatever angle one places oneself, Sixtus IV still appears as a singularly unattractive specimen of humanity. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Thomas M. Barrett. Sixtus V, given name Felice Peretti, Roman Catholic Pope from 1585 to 1590, was born at Grottamara, in Ancona, on the 13th of December 1521. He formally annulled (1478) the decrees of the Council of Constance and condemned (1482) abuses in the Spanish Inquisition. Roman Catholic Pope, 1585-90. Pope Sixtus IV. . His efforts in 1474 and 1476 to reunite the Russian Church with Rome and to gain Russian support against the Turks were unsuccessful. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. He joined the Franciscan Order when he was nine years old and earned his early education in the town of Chieri near Turin. He succeeded Pope Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus.His feast is celebrated on 6 April. He became Pope Sixtus and was the fourth of that name. 14. Above all, he was a founder or restorer of important institutions and a patron of arts and letters. Pope Sixtus IV appoints Platina as Prefect of the Library, by Melozzo da Forlì Sixtus IV (r. 1471-1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was notable enough to have the Sistine Chapel named after him. . …Spanish Inquisition, established by Pope. Although Sixtus endorsed the plot, he did not approve of assassination. The conclave which assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope, and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus IV. Pope Sixtus IV (1471-84), for example, was a holy man. His beneficiaries were members of his own family, whom he greatly enriched and who involved him in messy disputes, perhaps the worst of which was a conspiracy against Lorenzo (the Magnificent) de’ Medici. He was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna. ... Sixtus I Saint Sixtus Xystus Primus Rome or Greece 125 to 136/138 Telesphorus Saint Telesphorus Telesphorus ... Felix IV Saint Felix Felix Quartus Samnium: 22 September 530 to 17 October 532 Boniface II: Bonifacius Secundus He is the presiding head of the Roman Catholic church, although his twin brother Francesco (imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo) is the true legitimate Pope. From 1471 he was the second founder of the Vatican Library, which he opened for scholars. He entered the Franciscan order at an early age and studied philosophy and theology at the universities of Padua and Bologna. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus IV instituted for the Roman Church the feast (December 8) of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Birthplace: Grottamara, Ancona, Italy Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Bu. His parents were poor, and while still a child he was destined for the Franciscan Order.Later he studied philosophy and theology with great success at the University of Pavia, and lectured at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, and Florence, having amongst other eminent disciples the famous Cardinal Bessarion. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. His first thought was the prosecution of the war against the Turks, and legates were appointed for France, Spain, Germany, Hungary, and Poland, with … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. He is known for beginning construction of the Sistine Chapel. PASTOR, History of the Popes, IV (London, 1894); GREGOROVIUS, Rome in the Middle Ages, IV (London, 1901); BURKHARDT, Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien (1904); FRANTZ, Sixtus IV und die Republik Florenz (Ratisbon, 1880). Nihil Obstat. If one turns to his contemporaries for a verdict one finds little mercy shown him. Out of this scandal and its counteraction, he justifiably managed to excommunicate Lorenzo, to put Florence under interdict, and to induce King Ferdinand I of Naples, the papacy’s ally, to declare a fruitless and inglorious war that kept Italy confused for two years. The pope used Jewish physicians, and perhaps employed Jews for the collection, copying, and translation of Hebrew works. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. 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